“Liked” on the Danube
02.03.2013 | 18:15 | by Duygu Özkan (The Press)
In the 18th 400,000 century Swabia, Franconia, Bavaria, and others went with the ships down the Danube to be masters of house and home. The “Danube Swabians” look back on an eventful history. A visit to Hungary.
The elongated, single-storey house Maria Heim, born Friedsam, located in the center of the village Óbánya / Altglashütte in Hungary. Center means. Seven Steps to City Hall, 40 steps to the church, another ten steps in the Senior Club, where those two neighbor dogs can be heard very clearly that ankeppeln incessantly The mayor in the Norwegian sweater has in passing left a few friendly sentences and puffing behind him the chimney of a house thick white smoke into the sky.
In Óbánya Maria came home in 1937 on the world, 199 years after the first born here Friedsam. Mary’s home is warm nature, a retired seamstress, widowed too early. She speaks with the staid German Swabian impact – and we may well be amazed at how much has been the language of the old country held over the centuries. Maria Home is a Hungarian-German. Their ancestors were among those 400,000 ethnic Germans, the 18th during the Century in Ulm a ship – “Ulmer Schachtel” or “Wiener Zille” called – climbed to be down the Danube Men about the house and yard. Later they should be called “Danube Swabians”, we now know the research that the emigrants were not only from Swabia, but also from Bavaria, Franconia, Württemberg and other stains.
. River trip with animals and household goods, the Turkish wars had large areas in Hungary broke depopulated and abandoned – and these lands should revive the economically colonists from the Holy Roman Empire (agricultural). Launch was the peace of Satu Mare / Szatmár (1711). Between the Habsburgs and the insurgent Hungarian nobility Just one year later the first families boarded the ships, is documented with their household goods, their horses and cows, even the transport of a one-meter statue of Mary. The crossing took up to three weeks, a corner must have been painful.
The evacuation was driven on Imperial Court, but recent research focus their attention on the hitherto neglected “private” colonization; emigrants are much more than originally responded to the call of counts and other landlords. Common to both, however, was that they preferred those colonists who possessed capital and had a family (which by the way at the ports to encourage marriages led). And: The families had to be Catholic, the imperial court would take account of the loyalty of the colonists. Only with the tolerance edict of Emperor Joseph II (1781/82) was also the Protestants Donauweg to Hungary, the country’s promising earth opened.
Swabia and Ottomans. The cabbage roulades Mary home are not covered with whole leaves, but with thinly sliced cabbage. Your room is warm, the furniture is decorated with lots of lace. Why Óbánya? Also, she has dealt with this question. The village is not directly on the river (the Baja on the Danube is 50 kilometers away), but it lies in the middle of the “Swabian Turkey”, here, between Lake Balaton and the Danube, where the Ottomans ruled first, before the “Schwaben” came , lived in the 19th Century most of the Germans in Hungary. In Óbánya likely ancestors home in the glass industry have been active. The excavated earth from the glass rocks used as evidence, including the German name of the city, Altglashütte.
Most of the settlers were artisans and farmers in particular. They brought with them their knowledge of the three-field system, built to clean up the fields of clover, then later wine. Migrate your main motivation was social mobility, which was in her home almost impossible. Quick was claimed the colonists diligence and economic destiny, perhaps ingenuity, as is shown on a textbook for viticulture in 1919 is: “wine and women lead the orphans astray, so enjoy, it can be product of other bears, the proceeds the Savings Bank, and of the domestic godsend makes very little use. “Even home ancestors have farmed a farm, village, a few minutes’ walk away, where now stands a new, winter closed restaurant.
Their German identity has always been important to her, telling home. She leads those reading circle, the villagers founded in the 1920s, for the maintenance of culture and customs. Read fairy tales, “Patschka” – slippers – knit and maintain partnerships with cities in Germany and Austria. At her home, says home, we have always spoken German. When her mother died, she had just a few words of Hungarian skillfully. While Maria was growing up bilingual home itself, “our children speak little German.” Are about 20 bilingual primary schools (German-Hungarian) today in Hungary, the early 1980s, there were still over 50 Fewer and fewer young people are interested in their German origin, it says.
Many German Hungarians left their names in the 18th Century Magyarize when under the pressure on the population Magyarisierungspolitik successively increased. This pressure may have played a major role, when Nazi Germany was preparing to “ethnic German” population outside Germany actively involve in their policies.
“German youth.” Even in 1933, after Hitler came to power formed, in Hungary the “ethnic German camaraderie” that are subsequently opened “National Association of Germans in Hungary.” Were the previous associations of Germans in Hungary rather folkloric nature of commitment to the Hungarian state, is suddenly changed. With the People’s Alliance in Hungary created organizations were comparable to those in Germany (“German Youth” as a counterpart to “Hitler Youth”). The entrance into the Waffen-SS was actively promoted after the war began. He was based initially on a voluntary basis, and later could be no question of voluntarily.
Many Hungarians German behaved skeptical or hostile to the Nazis, the. (Social Democratic) workers, for example, the Catholic youth movement, craftsmen and farmers who refused to political appropriation How many opponents and supporters there, can hardly detect. 1941 is likely the national union have had around 60,000 members, the number tripled in the following year (1941 lived just under 480,000 German Hungarians in Hungary and neighboring countries).
When Mary’s father’s home after the war – the Wehrmacht soldier Siberian prisoner of war who survived – came home, he found his family prior full strength, her yard was no longer but them. Shortly after the war began the persecution and dispossession of the Germans in Hungary (1946-48), followed were those who were the communists declared a “traitor, war criminals and fascists”, ie members of the People’s League and the Waffen-SS, those who Magyarized their Germanized name again had and those who could put their loyalty to Hungary not explicitly demonstrated. By the end of the expulsions half of the Hungarian Germans had left the country or been displaced, many were deported to slave labor in the Soviet Union.
About the war and its aftermath is hardly spoke, says home. Hesitant to have publicly spoken German again and again identified himself as a Hungarian-German. Since her retirement she read a lot. Books about the war and its aftermath.
(“The Press”, print edition, 03/03/2013)